Граматика англійської мови



Мов сестрички й братики,

Правила граматики.

Всіх суворі правила

Вчать писати правильно.

Хто їх знає назубок

Той не робить помилок.

Про такого неодмінно

Скажуть, "Грамотна людина".

Граматика - це система об'єктивно діючих правил утворення словоформ і сполучення слів у реченні. Оскільки мова є засобом відображення дійсності,

то граматика відображає об'єктивні відношення і зв'язки між предметами і явищами навколишнього світу.

Граматика, як наука описує граматичну будову мови. Залежно від підходу до граматичних явищ розрізняють традиційну, структурну, трансформаційну, описову ( дескриптивну ) та інші граматики.

У методиці навчання іноземної мови під граматикою розуміють предмет, за допомогою якого засвоюють правила будови мови.

У навчанні граматики принципове значення має кінцева мета, яка ставиться перед учнями знати граматику чи оволодіти нею, вивчити правила будови мови чи оволодіти ними.

Для того, щоб знати граматику, досить звернутись до якогось авторитетного видання, прочитати його і по можливості запам'ятати, що там написано. Оволодіти ж граматикою означає навчитись застосовувати відповідні правила на практиці. Одних знань тут не досить. Володіння правилами передбачає практичну діяльність, оскільки лише через діяльність їх можна засвоїти. Очевидно, що знання можуть передувати формуванню навичок і полегшувати цей процес.

Основною метою навчання граматики іноземної мови у середній школі є формування в учнів мовленнєвих навичок. У зв'язку з цим істотне значення має питання відбору граматичного матеріалу, достатнього для реалізацій комунікативних цілей навчання в межах вимог, передбачених програмою.

У методичній літературі розрізняють активний і пасивний граматичний мінімум. Перший охоплює ті граматичні явища, які вживаються в усному мовленні в межах визначених програмою тем. Він опрацьовується переважно усно . До другого (пасивного) граматичного мінімуму належать граматичні явища , які учні повинні впізнавати і розуміти під час читання . Щодо змісту навчання граматики , то в англійській мові , наприклад ,його каркас складають три елементи :

1. Порядок слів, від якого часто залежать значення слова ( animal fat - fat animal, oil lamp - lamp oil, etc).

2. Використання службових і структурних слів ( Have you read it?, in the box,of the room, to my brother, etc).

3. Застосування суфіксів і префіксів ( she goes, two boys, the strongest, animal strongly, etc).

У плані синтаксису звертають на себе увагу строго фіксований порядок слів і рамочна конструкція простого підрядного речення.

У навчанні іноземних мов застосування правил є необхідністю, оскільки:

Правило дає можливість зосередити зусилля учня на засвоєнні певного елементу форми. Якщо учень знає, на що спрямовані його зусилля, засвоєння матеріалу відбувається швидше, оскільки діють мотиваційно-вольові фактори.

При застосуванні правил в учня формується природне вміння контролювати правильність свого мовлення. Постійне застосування їх у процесі тренування веде до згортання усвідомлення , забезпечує перехід його в "настороженість" щодо нових форм, а згодом - у потенціальну здатність до усвідомлення .

Опора на правила забезпечує безпомилкове мовлення ,що дуже важливо у період формування навичок ( становлення стереотипів ),оскільки запобігає інтерференції рідної мови. Особливо це стосується початкового етапу навчання.

У сучасній методиці навчання іноземних мов розрізняють два види правил: правила - інструкції і правила - узагальнення.

Правило - інструкція - це коротка формула , що стосується не всього комплексу граматичного явища , а лише якогось одного його елемента , однієї форми , включеної до мовного зразка. Так, під час опрацювання розповідних форм Present Perfect вчитель спирається на два мовні зразки:

Pete has done his homework.

The girls have cleaned their classroom.

До першого з них правило-інструкція звучатиме так: "Для третьої особи однини Present Perfect утворюється з допомогою дієслова has +третя форма відмінюваного дієслова." Таке правило не пропонується для заучування і відтворення, його повідомляють учням лише перед початком відповідної вправи. Учні зберігають його в оперативній пам'яті, бо воно служить їм інструкцією до дії, полегшує виконання завдання.

Правило-інструкція формується стисло. Довгі і громіздкі правила важко зберігати в оперативній пам'яті, а отже, учні не зможуть і користуватись ними. Та частина правила, яка стосується форми, може підкріплюватися або замінятися схемами або формулами, наприклад:

He + has +3форма

Правила - узагальнення трактують граматичне явище в комплексі. Наприклад: "Present Continuous утворюється від особової форми теперішнього часу дієслова to be та четвертої форми відмінюваного дієслова. Він вживається для вираження дії..." Правило - узагальнення систематизує знання, набуті учнями раніше, і описує граматичне явище в цілому. Правила - інструкції і правила - узагальнення співвідносяться як частина з цілим.

Для засвоєння граматичних знань застосовується такі форми роботи на уроці :

Сприймання правил інструкцій і утримання їх в оперативній пам'яті під час усного тренування.

Сприймання правил-узагальнень (пояснення вчителя, з підручника) і закріплення їх у пам'яті за допомогою письмових вправ. Це стосується як молодших, так і старших класів.

Сприймання правил-узагальнень ( пояснення вчителя, з підручника ) і закріплення їх у пам'яті в процесі аналізу прочитаного тексту в старших класах.

Навчаючи учнів англійської мови потрібно приділити велику увагу формуванню граматичних навичок. Уже маючи досвід роботи у школі, я зробила висновок, що дітям цікавіше вивчати граматичні структури у віршах, піснях, казках. Так, вивчаючи структури в Past Indefinite можна використовувати такі невеличкі вірші, у яких є ці структури:

One, Two, Three, Four, Five

One, two, three, four, five

Once I caught a fish alive.

Six, seven, eight, nine, ten

Then I let it go again.

Why did you let it go?

Because it bit my finger so.

Which finger did it bite?

The little finger on the right.

There Was a Crooked Man

There was a crooked man and he went a crooked mile,

He found a crooked sixpence against a crooked stile,

He bought a crooked cat which caught a crooked mouse,

And they all lived together in a little crooked house.

Miss Polly Had a Dolly

Miss Polly had a dolly who was sick, sick, sick,

And she phoned for the doctor to come quick, quick, quick.

The doctor came with his bag and his hat

And he knocked at the door with a rat-tat-tat.

He looked at the dolly and he shook his head,

And he said, "Miss Polly, you must put her straight to bed.

Wrap her up warm, and keep her very still,

I'll be back in the morning with my bill, bill, bill."

I Did, I Did, I Did

I did, I did, I did,

I did my washing today,

I did my washing today,

And now it's time to play.

I did, I did, I did,

I did my work today,

Little Jack Sprat

Little Jack Sprat

Once had a pig

It was not very little,

It was not very big.

It was not very thin,

It was not very fat,

It is a good pig to eat,

Said Little Jack Sprat.

Three Little Squirrels.

Ten little squirrels were sitting in a tree.

The first two said, " What can you see?"

The next two said, " A man with a gun ".

The next two said, "Let's run. Let's run."

The next two said, "Let's hide in the shade."

The last two said, "We are not afraid!"

But bang went the gun and away they all ran.

Old Macdonald Had a Farm.

Old Macdonald had a farm,

E,I,E,I,O

And on that farm he had some ducks,

E,I,E,I,O

With a quack here and a quack, quack there,

Here a quack, there a quack,

Everywhere a quack, quack.

Old Macdonald had a farm,

E, I,E,I,O.

Old Macdonald had a farm,

E,I,E,I,O

And on that farm he had some cows,

E,I,E,I,O

With a moo-moo here and moo-moo there.

When Little Fred was Called to Bed.

When little Fred was called to bed,

He always acted right:

He kissed mamma and then papa

And then wished all "Good night".

Strange Talk.

A little green frog lived under a lag

And every time spoke,

Instead of saying "Good morning",

He only said "Crak- croak".

A duck lived by the water side,

White feathers're on his back,

But when he asked "How do you do?"

He only said, "Quack- quack".

My mother

-Who led me when I was a child

And hushed me in her arms so mild?

-My mother.

-Who sat and watched my childish

head?

When sleeping in my little bed?

-My mother.

-When pain and sickness made me cry,

Who looked upon my heavy eyes?

-My mother.

-Who dressed my doll in clothes so gay,

And taught me often how to play.

-My mother.

_-Who ran to help me when I fell,

And would some funny stories tell?

-My mother.

-And can I ever stop to be

So loving and so kind to thee

Who was so very kind to me,

-My mother?

-And when you are sick and old and grey ,

My healthy arms will be your stay,

And I will calm your pains away,

My mother.

Вивчати структури

в Past Indefinite можна і за допомогою пісень.

Hickory, dickory, dock

The mouse ran up the clock,

The clock struck one,

The mouse ran down,

Nickory, dickory, dock.

Lucy Locket

Lucy Locket lost her pocket

Kitty Fisher found it,

But not a penny was there in it

Except the binding round it.

This Pig Went to Market

This pig went to market,

This pig stayed at home,

This pig had a bit of meat,

And this pig had none.

This pig said,''Wee! Wee! Wee!

I can't find my way home!''

Вивчаючи структури в Present Indefinite, можна використовувати такі вірші:

What Does the Cat Say ?

What does the cat say ? Meow , Meow.

What does ' the dog say ? Baw, Wow.

What does the donkey say ? Ee, Aw.

What does the crow say ? Caw , Caw.

What does the farmer say ? Shoo. Shoo

What does the cow say ? Moo,Moo.

What do they all say ?

Winter.

This is the season

When mornings are dark,

And birds do not sing

In the forest and parks

This is the season

When children ski,

And Father Frost

Brings the New Year tree

Spring

This is the season

When snowdrops bloom,

When nobody likes

To be in his room.

This is the season

When birds make their nests,

This is the season

We all like best

My cat

I have a cat,

Its name is Tit.

And by the fire

It loves to sit.

Each day I bring it

A dish of milk

And smooth its coat

That shines like silk

And on my knee

She often sits;

For Tit loves me;

And I love Tit.

Do You Help

Do you help to lay the table

With the plates and forks and spoons?

Yes, I do. I lay the table

In the afternoons.

It Is Time

"It is time to go to bed"

Says the clock to little Fred

"Don' t you want to have a rest?"

Close your eyes and do your best.

Seasons

"In winter I ski and skate,"

Says little Kate.

"In summer I like to swim,"

Says little Jim.

And what do you do in spring?

In spring we play and sing.

Winter

This is the season

When children ski

And Father Frost brings

The bright New Year tree.

The Glad Sun

The glad sun goes along the sky,

At night it comes down gold and red,

And suddenly the dark comes out,

And all the children go to bed.

Oh sun, I'm glad you know the way

To bring us back the pleasant day!

Who Loves Mummy Best?

Who loves Mummy best?

I - says Fred

I give her flowers,

White, yellow and red.

-Who loves Mummy best?

-I --says May,

With my dear Mummy

I always play.

- Who loves Mummy best?

- I-says Joe,

- She asks me to help her

And I always do so.

We Have a Lovely Garden

We have a lovely garden

And every summer day

We dig it well, and clean it well

And pull the weeds away

We have a lovely garden

And every summer night

We water all the flowers

And watch them with delight.

Do Your Want to Be Healthy?

Do you want to be healthy

And quick on your toes?

Do you eat your food slowly?

Do you breathe through your nose?

Do you press back your shoulders?

Do you hold up your head?

Do you open your window

When you go to be

Yes, I want to be healthy

And quick on my toes,

I eat my food slowly,

I breathe through my nose,

I press back my head,

I hold up my head,

I open my window,

When I go to bed.

We Live Here

I live here,

You live near,

Tom lives so far

That he goes by car.

We live near,

You live here,

Tom and Ray

Live far away.

Вивчення дієслова "to be" у віршах

This is a father,

This is a mother,

This is a sister,

This is a brother.

Father, mother,

Sister, brother.

Hand in hand

With one another.

My Cat

My cat is fat,

My cat is black

My cat likes rats-

Both lean and fat.

Summer

This is the season

When nights are short;

When children are full

Of fun and sports;

Playing, swimming

All the day

With a happy song

On a sunny day.

Little Jack Frost

It is cold and still

The wind is away

And Little Jack Frost

Is busy today

He nips my checks,

He nips my nose

And before I can catch him

Away he goes.

Autumn

This is the season

When fruit is sweet;

This is the season

When school friends meet.

I am a Brave Mouse

I'm a brave, brave mouse.

I go marching through the house,

And I'm not afraid of anything.

For danger I'm prepared,

And I'm never, never scared.

No, I'm not afraid of anything.

What about a cat?

What-a cat? Yes a cat!

Big and fat.

Well, except for a cat -

I'm not afraid of anything.

I'm brave, brave mouse.

I go marching through the house,

And I'm not afraid of anything.

For danger I'm prepared,

And I'm never, never scared.

No, I'm not afraid of anything.

What about a trap? (сильце)

What-a trap? Yes, a trap!

That goes snap.

Well, except for a trap-

I'm not afraid of anything.

I'm not brave, brave mouse.

I go marching through the house,

And I'm not afraid of anything,

For danger I'm prepared,

And I am never, never scared,

No, I'm not afraid of anything.

What about an owl?

Yes, an owl! On the prowl (в пошуках здобичі)

Well, except for an owl-

I'm not afraid of anything.

Summer

Summer is here, days are long.

The sun is bright and strong.

This is the season when nights are short

And children have plenty of fun and sport.

Summer Holidays

Woods are green, the sun is bright

And the wind is warm and light

I can bathe and play and run

Summer holidays are fun.

My Name

My name is Ann.

Her name is Nan.

His name is Ben.

Say it again.

Riddles

I am white,

I am good to drink.

What am I? (Milk)

I am big,

I am in the sky

I give light

What am I? (The sun)

It is white

It is cold

You can ski on it

What is it? (Snow)

When Is It?

The sky is blue. The sun shines brightly.

The leaves on the trees are green.

The gardens are full of flowers. (In summer)

When Is It?

The sky is blue. The sun shines brightly.

The leaves on the trees are green.

The gardens are full of flowers. (In summer)

Our Bunny

(Words by Kenagy, music by F. Arnold)

Oh Bunny, pretty bunny,

Your fur is soft and white.

Oh Bunny, pretty Bunny,

Your fur is soft and white.

2 . Oh Bunny, pretty Bunny,

Your ears are very long.

Oh Bunny, pretty Bunny,

Your ears are very long.

3. Oh Bunny, pretty Bunny,

Your eyes are very pink.

Oh Bunny, pretty Bunny,

Your eyes are very pink.

We feed you, pretty Bunny,

Green lettuce every day.

We feed you, pretty Bunny,

Green lettuce every day.

Oh Bunny, pretty Bunny,

You hop, hop, hop, hop, hop.

Oh Bunny, pretty Bunny,

You hop, hop, hop, hop, hop.

I Can't and I'll Try

The little boy who says, "I'll try"

Will climb to the hill-top.

The little boy who says, "I can't"

Will at the bottom stop.

"I'll try "does great things every day

"I can't" gets nothing done.

Be sure then that you say "I'll try"

And let "I can't" alone.

I Shall Dance

I shall dance, I shall play

I shall make some things of day.

She will dance, she will play

She will make some things of day.

Come to the Sportsground

Come to the sportsground, girl and boys.

There you will get health and joys

Swim in the river, run and play

Sport makes you healthy, strong and gay.

I'll be a Milk-Maid

I'll be a milk-maid

That's my dream

All people will drink milk

And eat butter and cream.

I Shall be a Barber

I shall be a barber

And I'll be very glad

I'll shave a lot of men

And even you, my dad.

Three Little Pigs

My name is Naf-Naf (Nuf-Nuf, Nif-NIf)

I am a little pig

I am rosy and fat

But I am not big.

My house is made of grass (of sticks, of bricks)

And there I shall hide

If Big Bad Wolf comes

I shall be safe inside.

Spring Is Everywhere

(Words by N. Kanagy, music by F. Arnold)

Birds are in the tree tops

Flying here and there,

Everything is growing,

Spring is everywhere.

Flowers are in the gardens,

Butterflies are there

Flying round the blossoms

Spring is everywhere.

Little Jumping Joan

(Harmonized by A. Moffat)

Here I am, Little jumping Joan,

When nobody's with me

I am always alone.

Вірші та пісні

для вивчення структур в Future Indefinite

What are You Going to be?

What are you going to be?

What are you going to be?

I shall be a soldier

That's the life for me.

What are you going to be?

What are you going to be?

I shall be a garage hand,

That's the life for me.

What are you going to be?

What are you going to be?

I shall be a fireman,

That's the life for me.

Little Tommy Tucker

Little Tommy Tucker

Thinks of his supper.

What will he eat?

White bread and butter.

When I am ten

When I am ten

I'll get a pen

Then I shall write

Like brother Ben.

Smile

(Music by V. Shainsky, words by M. Plyatskovsky)

With a smile a gloomy day is bright,

And a rainbow in the sky at once appears

Share your smile and everything's all right,

And it will return to you and will be near.

Refrain: Then for sure clouds in sky

Will be merry, dancing high

And grasshopper'll take at once a tiny fiddle

From blue streams all rivers start,

Give a smile from all your heart

Give a smile from all your heart,

Just from the middle!

Give a sunny, friendly, open smile,

And the rain will stop immediately crying

And a sleepy wood'll part for a while

With its calm and clap green hands, so gladly sighing.

Do Not Tease Dogs!

(Music by Ptichkin, words by Plyatskovsky)

Do not tease little dogs (La…)

And take care of kittens.

And feed birdies and birds, (La…)

Bring them crumbs in mittens

They will merrily sing (La…)

After having eaten.

Children will be neither scratched

Children will be neither scratched

Nor they will be bitten.

If you are talking a lot (La…)

At the bear's lair

Change your walk to a trot (La…)

Or you'll meet the bear.

And the same with a bee (La…)

Can it sting for nothing?

All the animals and birds,

All the animals and birds

Are not falsely fussing.

I Love Little Pussy

(Harmonised by A. Moffat)

I love little Pussy,

Her coat is so warm,

And if I don't hurt it

She'll do me no harm.

So, I'll not pull its tail,

Oh drive it away,

But Pussy and I

Together will play.

She will sit by my side

And I'll give her some food;

And she'll like me because

I'm gentle and god.

Father Frost Is Coming

( In this song children can express their New Year's wishes.)

Father Frost is coming,

Coming, coming.

Father Frost is coming

To you and me.

He will bring the toys

Toys, toys

He will bring the toys

To you and me.

He will bring a trumpet,

Trumpet, trumpet,

He will bring a trumpet

To you and me

Nelly wants a dollie, dollie, dolie,

Nelly wants a dollie,

when Father Frost comes,

Father Frost is coming,

coming, coming,

Father Frost is coming,

coming, coming.

Для вивчення структур

в Present Continuous можна вивчити такі вірші та пісеньки:

X Is Wearing a Bright Blue Dress

X is wearing a bright blue dress,

Bright blue dress, bright blue dress,

X is wearing a bright blue dress,

All day long.

Y is wearing a bright green shirt,

Bright green shirt, bright green shirt,

Y is wearing a bright green shirt,

All day long.

We Have Come for Polly Ann

We have come for Polly Ann,

Polly Ann, Polly Ann,

We have come for Polly Ann

Can she come out to play?

Polly Ann is sweeping

Polly Ann is sweeping,

Polly Ann is weeping,

She can't come out to play.

We have come for Polly Ann,

Polly Ann, Polly Ann,

We have come for Polly Ann,

Can she come out to play?

Polly Ann is eating,

Polly Ann is eating,

She can't come out to play.

Little Cat

Where are you going,

My little Cat?

I am going to town

To buy a hat

My little Cat

Always wears a hat,

My little Kittens

Like woolen mittens.

On Skis

I am running on my skis

White and silver stand the trees.

I'm as warm as warm can be

Try to catch me. One! Two! Three!

I am running on my skates

White and silver are the lakes

I am as quick as quick can be.

Try to catch me. One! Two! Three!

April Rain

Rain, rain, April rain,

You are feeding seed and grain,

You are raising plants and crops.

With your gaily sparkling drops.

In Spring

The sun is shining,

The flowers are blooming;

The sky is blue,

The rains are few.

In Winter

The snow is falling,

The wind is blowing;

The ground is white

All day and all night.

As I Was Going Along…

As I was going along, along, along,

And singing a comical song, song, song.

The way that I went was so long, long, long

And the song that I sang was as long, long, long.

And so I went along singing a song.

As I am going along, along, along,

And singing a comical song, song, song.

The way that I'm going is so long, long, long.

And the song that I'm singing is so long, long, long.

And so I'm going along singing a song.

It is Snowing!

It's snowing, it's snowing

What a lot of snow!

It's snowing, it's snowing

Let us play with snow.

It's Snowing!

It's snowing, it's snowing

What a lot of snow!

Let us make some snowballs,

We all like to throw.

It's snowing, it's snowing.

Let us sledge and ski!

When I'm dashing down the hill

Clear the way for me!

In the Spring

In the spring, in the spring

Sweet and fresh is everything

Winter winds are no more blowing,

In the spring, in the spring

Sweet and fresh is everything.

Spring

Spring is coming. I can feel it,

How soft is the morning air!

Birds are singing, buds are peeping,

Life and joy are everywhere.

I Love Going to School

I'm learning to write

And I'm learning to spell.

And my teacher says

That I'm doing very well!

They Are Dancing…

They are dancing

They are walking,

They are singing,

They are talking.

My friend is dancing,

My friend is walking,

He is singing,

He is talking.

They Are Working

Jane is sweeping the floor,

Kate is washing the door,

Nick is feeding the cat,

Ann is brushing her hat.

What Are They Doing?

Tom is playing, Fred is eating

Nick is writing, Bob is sleeping

The sun is shining, and I am smiling.

Are They Working Well

I am counting to ten

You are giving them a pen,

She is looking at the door,

He is sitting on the floor.

All of us are working well,

Waiting, waiting for the bell.

The 8-th of March

March the eighth is coming,

Mother's holiday,

We are making presents

For our Mother's day.

Father's buying flowers,

Ann is washing up

Nick is writing postcards

Wishing "Happy Holiday!"

A Song About My Toys

One and two, and three and four

I am sitting on the floor,

I am playing with a ball (a frog)

And a pretty little doll (a dog)

One, and two, and three and four

I am sitting on the floor,

I am playing with a car (a hare, a fox)

And a pretty little star(a bear, a fox)

One and two, and three, and four

We are sitting on the floor,

We are sitting, girls and boys,

We are playing with the toys.

Spring Song

Now the rain is falling down,

Over country, over town

Calling all the earth to wake

Such a stir the rain drops make!

Wake up little roots below,

Wake up! It is time to grow.

Birds are here, the sky is blue

We are waiting just for you.

Snowflakes

The snowflakes are falling,

Are falling, are falling,

The snowflaks are falling

All soft and all white.

The snowflakes are dancing,

Are dancing, are dancing,

The snow-flakes are dancing

All happy and gay.

Spring Is Here

Springtime is here,

Springtime is here,

Violets are blooming

Springtime is here

Springtime is here,

Springtime is here,

Green grass is growing,

Springtime is here.

Springtime is here,

Springtime is here,

Birdies are singing

Springtime is here.

When the Golden Sun is Sinking

When the golden sun is sinking

Slowly in a cloud of red,

Birds and all the little children

Nod their heads and start to bed.

All the garden flowers are drooping,

Waiting for the morning sun.

Stars and moon are now appearing,

Telling us the day is gone.

Вивчаючи структури

у The Present Perfect Tense можна вивчити такі вірші:

Pussy Cat, Pussy Cat

Pussy Cat, Pussy Cat;

Where have you been?

I've been to London

To see the Queen

Pussy Cat, Pussy Cat,

What have you done?

I have frightened a little mouse.

Twiddle Dan and Twiddle Dee

Twiddle Dan and Twiddle Dee

I ask to have a battle:

For Twiddle Dan said Twiddle Dee

Has spoiled his nice new rattle.

We Have Made a Snowman

Look! We have made a snowman,

He is tall and fat.

He has a carrot for his nose

He has a funny hat.

A Pen-friend

I have taken a sheet of paper

I have written a letter to Fred

I have put it into this envelope

I am sure Fred will be glad.

I shall put a stamp on the envelope

To the post-office I'll run

I'll drop my letter into a letter-box

And shall wait for the answer.

The Sun Has Set

The sun has set

And now anew

With fallen dew

The grass is wet.

Each little bird

Has sunk to rest

Within its nest

No song is heard.

The Movies

The movies are nice,

I've been once or twice,

I go with my mother,

Get in for half price

The picture I've seen

Is fine as can be;

I get so excited

That mother pokes me.

Дієслово to have є допоміжним у Present Perfect, але можна вивчити багато віршів з дієсловом to have як смисловим перед поясненням утворення структур в Present Perfect.

***

Sister Kate has a plate

Sister Nell has a bell

Brother Nick has a stick

Brother Mike has a bike

***

He has a long nose,

He has a red rose

He has a blue hat

He has a black cat.

I Have a Ball

I have a ball, I have a car,

I have a lorry, I have a star.

He has a ball, he has a car,

He has a lorry, he has a star.

What do They Have?

Mother Cat has a red hat,

Mother Goat has a red coat,

Mother Hen has a red pen,

Mother Fox has a red box.

Has She a Ruler?

She has a ruler, she has a pen

And she has pencils. How many? - Ten.

She has pencils of all colours:

Red, green, yellow and blue.

She can draw some funny pictures

And what about you?

***

We have books, we have pens

We have pencils too

We can read, write and draw

And what about you?

Our Cat Has a Flat

Our pussy cat

Has a good small flat.

It has no door,

But a brown floor

The walls are white.

All the flat is bright.

Вірші можна використовувати не лише вивчаючи часові форми англійської мови а й інші граматичні явища. Так, вивчаючи структури There is / are можна використати такі віршовані рядки:

There is a desk at the window

There is a shelf at the door

There is a table in the middle of the room

There is a green rug on the floor

There are four chairs at the table

There are two pictures on the wall

There are three candies on the shelf

A car, a Teddy bear, and a ball

The TV-set is in the corner

The piano is to my right

The cupboard full of cups and plates

Is on my left-hand side.

Наведений вище віршик дуже гарний для вивчення прийменників.

There Is the Key of the Kingdom

This is the key of the kingdom,

In that kingdom there is a city.

In that city there is a town,

In that town there is a street,

In that street there is a lane (провулок),

In that lane there is a yard,

In that yard there is a house,

In that house there is a room,

In that room there is a bed,

On that bed there is a basket,

In that basket there are some flowers,

Flowers in the basket, basket on the bed,

Bed in the room, room in the house,

House in the yard, yard in the lane,

Lane in the streets, streets in the town,

Town in the city, city in the kingdom

Of that kingdom this is the key.

Ведучи далі розмову про прийменники,які відіграють в англійській мові дуже важливу роль, їх можна заучувати у віршах:

***

I have a black dog

And a white cat

I walk in the garden,

I sleep in my bed.

***

A bear and bunny

Have plenty of money

They go to the store

For carrots and honey.

A Looking-glass

I am on the wall

I am in your hand

When you look at me

You can see your face.

Travelling

This is a bus, this is a train

This is a ship, this is a plane

I travel by bus, I travel by train

I travel by ship, I travel by plane

In and On

A little mouse is in the house

A little fox is in the box

A little duck is in the truck

A little cat is in the hat

A little good is in the boat

A grey cat is on the mat

A green frog is on the log

A red cock is on the clock

A big fish is on the dish

A white hare is on the chair.

I'm Looking for Fred

Under the table, under the bed

Under the sofa, I'm looking for Fred

If you know where he is

Help me to find him, please.

Children: "He is in the wardrobe".

Stop! Look!

Trams and cars in our town

Run up and down

Run up and down

Stop! Look at the light!

First look to the left!

And then to the right!

Apples

One little apple on a tree

Two apples for you and me

Three apples by the door

And four apples on the floor

The apples are good and sweet

Can you count them all, Pete? ( ten apples)

My Day

Breakfast in the morning,

Dinner in the day,

Tea comes after dinner

Then comes times to play

Supper in the evening

When the sky is red

Then the day is over

And we go to bed.

Модальні дієслова

***

I cannot reach the ceiling

But I can sweep the floor

And when I grow bigger

I'll do learn to do some more.

Lazy-Bones Grundy

"I cannot work on Monday",

Says lazy-bones Grundy.

"Nor start the work on Tuesday,

Wednesday is a holiday,

I must plan on Thursday

What to do on Friday,

On Saturday I like to play,

On Sunday I must rest all day.

Learn Your Lessons

Learn your lessons

As well as you can

Be tidy like Nick

Not dirty like Dan.

Can

I can read, I can write

I can speak English too.

I love learning English.

And what about you?

I Love Going to School

I'm learning to write

And I'm learning to spell

And my teacher says

That I'm doing very well

I can spell my nice cat-

And that is C-A-T!

I can spell it's name Pat -

And that is P - A - T!

I can read, I can write,

I can spell my name, too---

I just love going to school!

And what about you?

I Love Going to School

I'm learning to write

And I'm learning to spell

And my teacher says

That I'm doing very well

I can read, I can write

I can spell my name, too -

I just love going to school!

And what about you?

I can spell my nice cat -

And that is C-A-T!

I can spell its name Pat -

And that is P-A-T!

I Can't and I'll Try

The little boy who says "I'll try"

Will climb to the hill top,

The little boy who says "I can't"

Will at the bottom stop.

"I'll try" does great things every day

"I can't" gets nothing done

Be sure then that you say "I'll try",

And let I can't alone.

Children Yellow, Black and White.

Children yellow, black and white

Must be friends and unite!

The Snare

I hear a sudden cry of pain! There is a rabbit in a share. Now I hear the cry again, But I cannot tell from where. And I cannot find the place Where his paw is in the snare Little one! Oh, little one! I am searching everywhere.

A, B, C, D, E ,F, G

A, B, C, D, E, F, G. John is hiding far from me Looking here, looking there, I can't see him anywhere. Pitter pat. What is that? Oh, it's just a pussy cat.

Щоб діти не втратили інтересу до вивчення мови, щоб вони навчалися із задоволенням, передусім учитель повинен поставити мету - діти не повинні боятися. Незнайоме здається важким, а важке лякає. Дітей потрібно навчати так, щоб їм було цікаво, щоб вони бажали прийти на урок, щоб дізнатися, що буде далі. Помилковим є твердження, що дитину можна навчити іноземної мови, використовуючи народний фольклор, лічилки, колискові, вірші тієї країни, мова якої вивчається. У фольклорних віршах є чимало архаїзмів, які дітям важко розуміти. Але все ж таки, на мою думку, вірші з нескладною лексикою можуть допомагати учням вивчати ту чи іншу граматичну структуру.

Непотрібно забувати, що під навичками говоріння маються на увазі навички озвучування висловлювань, навички оперування лексичними одиницями та навичками граматичного оформлення речень. Усі ці аспекти мовлення доцільно трактувати комплексно, тому що лише такий підхід дає можливість забезпечувати повноцінний процес їх формування.

ЛІТЕРАТУРА

П.О.Бех, "Англійська мова", К. - "Либідь", 1993.

В.А. Верхогляд "Английские стихи" для детей", М. - "Просвещение", 1981.

О.І.Вишневський, "Діяльність учнів на уроці іноземної мови", К. - "Радянська школа", 1989.

Т.Ю. Губарева, "Английский язык", серия "Школа в клеточку", М., - "Лист", 1997.

К. Эккерслли "Живая грамматика английского языка", Харьков, - "Торсинг", 1998.

Р.В. Резник "Граматика английского язика для учащихся средней школы", М. - "Просвещение", 1991.



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